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Round the Sphere Again: Apologetics

More on Presuppositionalism
Despite what you may have heard, there is a place for evidence in presuppositional apologetics. However

[W]e must never think of evidence as something that establishes Christianity or “proves God” or Scripture, etc., but something that simply affirms (or perhaps, re-affirms) Christianity and other truths. Evidence points to facts already in place, like a man pointing to a tower on a hill. Evidence and historical apologetics doesn’t provide the hill upon which the tower can stand. Again, evidence affirms, not establishes.

Read more from Jamin Hubner at RealApologetics Blog.

Explaining the Differences
with an illustration that helps “distinguish between the various traditions with regard to divine sovereignty, free-will, and salvation.” (Parchment and Pen)

Briefly Summarizing
Christian epistemology. (RealApologetic Blog)


Thankful Thursday

I’m thankful for hot running water, central heating, and my automatic washer and dryer. While I’m thinking about it, I’m thankful for my electric stove and fridge, too. I have so much more than my grandmother did, things that I mostly take for granted, seldom stopping to consider that they are good gifts from God.  So today I’m thanking my heavenly Father for all these conveniences that make life easier for me.

I’m thankful for my kids. Sometimes they make things easier for me, and sometimes not. But they are always good gifts and I am thankful for them.

I’ve had a morning that’s been interrupted over and over again, and I’ve crossed off next to nothing from the list of things I’d hoped to do today. I’m thankful that God is in control of my interrupted days, too.

I’m thankful for the blessings of everyday life. I am thankful for the earthly life I’ve been given and also for the promise of eternal life.

On Thursdays throughout this year, I plan to post a few thoughts of thanksgiving along with Kim at the Upward Call and others. Why don’t you participate by posting your thanksgiving each week, too? It’ll be an encouragement to you and to others, I promise.


Called According to Paul

I want to put this old series of posts in the favorite posts section on the right sidebar, so I’ll be reposting them from my previous Blogger blog one by one over the next few weeks.

Not Herman Ridderbos.In Paul, an Outline of His Theology, Herman Ridderbos writes that

….something should be said about what Paul time and again terms the divine call and the calling of the church….He gives the word a pregnant significance….by understanding it of the word of divine power by which God calls into being the things that do not exist and by which he works what he commands. It is this effectual, efficient divine calling which now takes place through the gospel and by which God has called the church to faith itself as well as to the whole of the new life by faith.1

According to Ridderbos, then, when Paul uses the word call, he means something that does real work, something that gives rise to that which had not previously existed. Paul uses call to mean a call that is heeded because there is power in the call itself.

How did Ridderbos come to that conclusion? Well, I’m pretty sure he didn’t just consult a lexicon or concordance or Bible dictionary. Ridderbos is a biblical scholar, so he had years and years and years of study under his belt when he wrote that statement, but I’d bet that part of his study involved looking at the all the instances in which Paul used the word “called” and studying the context for clues to how the word was used in that particular place; and then putting all of that information together to come up with the general definition of the word given us in the quote.

This is something that even those of us who are not biblical scholars can do. We don’t have to just take Ridderbos’ word (or the lexicon’s or the dictionary’s or the concordance’s, either). Nope, we can check it out for ourselves. It’s not that difficult, but it does involve a bit of detective work done through careful inspection of the text. You don’t have to know New Testament Greek. Not that a knowledge of Greek wouldn’t be helpful, but you can still learn a lot about the meaning of biblical words without it, as long as you’ve got your trusty magnifying glass and notebook.

So this is what I’m planning to do: I’ll look at Paul’s use of the word “called” to determine how he used it. It’ll take a series of posts; I’m not sure how many. First up will be an examination of the use of the word “called” in 1 Corinthians 1.

Stay tuned….

Herman Ridderbos, Paul, an Outline of His Theology, page 235.


Round the Sphere Again: Whatever You Eat or Drink

With Purpose
On slowing down at the dinner table. (The Irish Calvinist)

With Pumpkin
I made these cookies (Mennonite Girls Can Cook) with the canned pumpkin not used in the pie for Thanksgiving  dinner.  Except that I didn’t frost them because by the time I got around to it, the cookies already been pronounced “very good” and I didn’t see the point of making a whole batch of frosting for what was already only a half batch of cookies. They expecially liked them dunked in tea and are already asking me to make more. 

Pumpkins, you know, are one of God’s good gifts and so are good cookie recipes.


Theological Term of the Week

federal head
The position of Adam and Christ as heads of a people whom they represent, with Adam representing the whole human race in the fall, and Christ representing those who are united to him through faith, so that God judges the whole human race to be guilty sinners in Adam, and judges all believers to be righteous in Christ.

  • From scripture:

    12 Therefore, just as sin came into the world through one man, and death through sin, and so death spread to all men because all sinned— 13 for sin indeed was in the world before the law was given, but sin is not counted where there is no law. 14 Yet death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over those whose sinning was not like the transgression of Adam, who was a type of the one who was to come.

    15 But the free gift is not like the trespass. For if many died through one man’s trespass, much more have the grace of God and the free gift by the grace of that one man Jesus Christ abounded for many. 16 And the free gift is not like the result of that one man’s sin. For the judgment following one trespass brought condemnation, but the free gift following many trespasses brought justification. 17 For if, because of one man’s trespass, death reigned through that one man, much more will those who receive the abundance of grace and the free gift of righteousness reign in life through the one man Jesus Christ.

    18 Therefore, as one trespass led to condemnation for all men, so one act of righteousness leads to justification and life for all men. For as by the one man’s disobedience the many were made sinners, so by the one man’s obedience the many will be made righteous. 20 Now the law came in to increase the trespass, but where sin increased, grace abounded all the more, 21 so that, as sin reigned in death, grace also might reign through righteousness leading to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord. (Romans 5:12-21 ESV)

  • From The London Baptist Confession 1689:
    Chapter 6: Of the Fall of Man, Of Sin, And of the Punishment Thereof

    2._____ Our first parents, by this sin, fell from their original righteousness and communion with God, and we in them whereby death came upon all: all becoming dead in sin, and wholly defiled in all the faculties and parts of soul and body.

    3._____ They being the root, and by God’s appointment, standing in the room and stead of all mankind, the guilt of the sin was imputed, and corrupted nature conveyed, to all their posterity descending from them by ordinary generation, being now conceived in sin, and by nature children of wrath, the servants of sin, the subjects of death, and all other miseries, spiritual, temporal, and eternal, unless the Lord Jesus set them free.

  • From Systematic Theology by Wayne Grudem:
    [A]ll members of the human race were represented by Adam in the time of testing in the Garden of Eden. As our representative, Adam sinned, and God counted us guilty as well as Adam. … God counted Adam’s guilt as belonging to us, and since God is the ultumate judge of all things in the universe, and since his thoughts are always true, Adam’s guilt does in fact belong to us. God rightly imputed Adam’s guilt to us.

    [I]f we think it is unfair for us to be represented by Adam, then we should also think it is unfair for us to be represented by Christ and to have his righteousness imputed to us by God. For the procedure that God used was just the same, and that is exactly Paul’s point in Romans 5:12-21. … Adam, our first representative sinned—and God counted us guilty. But Christ, the representative of all who believe in him, obeyed God perfectly—and God counted us righteous. 
  • From Of Christ as the Covenant Head of the Elect by John Gill:
    5. Christ, in the everlasting covenant, engaged in the name of his people, to obey and suffer in their stead; and accordingly he did both in time, as their Head and Representative. He obeyed the law, and fulfilled all righteousness, not as a single individual of human nature, and for himself, but as the federal Head of his people, as representing them; “That so the righteousness of the law might be fulfilled in us”, says the apostle, (Rom. 8:4) that is, in the elect of God, they being considered in Christ their Head, when he became the fulfilling End of the law for righteousness unto them; and so they were made, or accounted, the righteousness of God “in him” their Head, (Rom. 10:4; 2 Cor. 5:21) in like manner as he in their name engaged to suffer for them; so in time he suffered in their room and stead, as their head and representative; insomuch that they may be truly said to suffer with him; they were all gathered together, recollected in one Head, “in Christ”, and sustained and represented by him when he hung upon the cross, and are said to be “crucified with” him (Eph. 1:10; Col. 2:12).


    6. In consequence of Christ’s covenant engagements and performances, when he rose from the dead, he rose not as a private Person, but as a public Person, as the head and representative of all those for whom he obeyed and suffered; and therefore they are said to be quickened and raised together with him, as they were then also justified in him, when he himself, as their Head and Surety was (Eph. 2:5, 6; Col. 3:1; 1 Tim. 3:16). Yea, Christ is also gone to heaven, not only as the Forerunner of his people, but as their Head and Representative; he has taken possession of heaven in their name, appears in the presence of God for them, and represents them, as the high priest did the children of Israel, in the holy of holies; and hence they are said to be made to sit together in heavenly places “in Christ Jesus” (Eph. 2:6). 


    7. The federal headship of Christ, may be argued and concluded from Adam being a federal head and representative of all his natural offspring; in which he was “the figure of him that was to come”, that is, Christ; for it was in that chiefly, if not solely, that he was a figure of Christ; at least, that is the chief, if not the only thing the apostle has in view, (Rom. 5:14) as appears by his running the parallel between them, as heads and representatives of their respective offspring: Adam, through his fall, conveying sin and death to all his natural descendants; and Christ, through the free gift of himself, communicating grace, righteousness, and life to all his spiritual seed, the elect, the children his Father gave him: and hence these two are spoken of as the first and last Adam, and the first and second man; as if they were the only two men in the world, being the representatives of each of their seeds, which are included in them (1 Cor. 15:45, 47).

Learn more:

  1. Reformation Theology: Two Federal Heads - Adam and Christ
  2. R. C. Sproul: Adams Fall and Mine
  3. Greg Herrick: Study and Exposition of Romans 5:12-21

Related terms:

Do you have a a theological term you’d like to see featured here as a Theological Term of the Week? If you email it to me, I’ll seriously consider using it.

I’m also interested in any suggestions you have for tweaking my definitions or for additional (or better) articles or sermons/lectures for linking. I’ll give you credit and a link back to your blog if I use your suggestion.

Clicking on the Theological Term graphic at the top of this post will take you to a list of all the previous theological terms organized in alphabetical order or by topic.